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The Interpretation of Contracts in Singapore


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The Interpretation of Contracts in Singapore
Sep 2018

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1.      Introduction
2.      Content of the Contract 
a.      Express Terms
b.      Implied Terms in Fact
c.      Implied Terms in Law
3.   Principles of Interpretation of Contractual Terms
a.      Overall
b.      The admissible extrinsic evidence to interpret contractual terms
c.      The contextual approach towards interpretation of contractual terms
d.      Canons of interpretation (eg contra proferentum rule)
e. Priority of Terms
f.      Cumulative Remedies 
4.      Types of terms 
a.      Conditions / Warranties / Innominate Terms
b.      Condition Precedent / Condition Subsequent
5.      Interpretation of Specific Clauses
a.      Subject to Contract Clauses
b.      Representations and Warranties Clauses
c.      Common Clauses in contracts regarding Property Transactions
d.      Common Clauses in contracts regarding Intellectual Property
e.      Common Clauses in contracts regarding Joint Venture
f.       Common Clauses in contracts regarding Construction Projects
g.      Confidentiality Clauses
h.      Indemnification Clauses / Waiver or Non-Waiver Clauses
i.       Entire agreement clauses / No reliance clauses
j.       Termination Clauses
k.      Force Majeure Clauses
l.       Exemption Clauses / Unfair Contract Terms Act / Lemon Law Legislation
m.    Limitation of Liability Clauses
n.      Liquidated damages / Penalty clauses
o.     Choice of Law Clauses
p.      Dispute resolution Clauses (arbitration / mediation / mandatory negotiation)
q.      Restraint of Trade Clause / Other employment clauses
6.      Conclusion – How choice of drafting affects substantive rights


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